Discipline and Dismissal

There are very specific steps to be followed. Do not get caught out

Ivan Israelstam

The Labour Relations Act of 1995 (LRA) makes it very easy for employees to challenge alleged unfair dismissals and other unfair practices at private or statutory dispute-resolution forums.
 These disputes may, by agreement, be dealt with via private (non-statutory) dispute-resolution forums such as Amsa, Afsa, Tokiso and others. 

There are also a number of statutory dispute-resolution forums established by the LRA. These include:

  • The dispute-resolution arms of bargaining councils (BC).

These are in existence in certain industries, including, for example, the metal and engineering, motor, public-service and chemical industries.

  • The Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA).

This is the forum to be used by those industries that do not have their own bargaining councils, for example retail, IT, security, financial services and others.

  • The Labour Court.
  • The Labour Appeal Court.

The process that must be followed when there is a claim of an unfair dismissal is that:

  • The aggrieved employee must start off by completing a dispute-referral form and lodging it with the relevant BC or with the CCMA.
  • A conciliation meeting is then set up where a mediator is appointed to attempt to facilitate an out-of-court settlement.

This is a necessary first step and the idea is to settle the dispute without going into a time-consuming resolution process.

  • If this conciliation process is successful, the employer and employee then sign a contract setting out the terms of their settlement agreement and the matter is then regarded as closed.
  • If conciliation fails to resolve the dispute, however, the employee may refer it to the next level, which, depending on the nature of the dispute, will either be an arbitration tribunal (similar to a junior court) or to the Labour Court (the more senior dispute-resolution forum).

The matter will go to the Labour Court instead of to arbitration if the dispute relates to matters such as multiple retrenchment, strike dismissals or automatically unfair dismissals.

The arbitration or Labour Court hearing would normally take place at a later date.

  • Alternatively, the CCMA may set the matter down as a con/arb. In such a case, unless one of the parties objects, the arbitration would take place immediately after conciliation fails.
  • At arbitration or Labour Court the arbitrator or judge hears statements and examines evidence from the employer and employee, and decides whether the dismissal or other act was fair or not.
  • Once an arbitrator has communicated his/her decision to the parties, either of them may, if dissatisfied, apply for a review at the Labour Court.

For example, should either party have evidence that the arbitrator accepted a bribe, was biased, ignored relevant evidence, refused to listen to relevant evidence, assisted the other party unduly or otherwise acted wrongly, it may apply to the Labour Court to set aside the arbitrator's decision.

  • Any decision of the Labour Court may be referred to the Labour Appeal Court and could be referred even higher to the Supreme Court of Appeal and to the Constitutional Court, as occurred in the case of Sidumo v Rustenburg Platinum Mines Ltd.

When a dismissal dispute is referred to arbitration or Labour Court, the employee only has to prove that he/she was, in fact, dismissed. Then the employer has to prove that the dismissal was both procedurally and substantively fair. And the employer normally has to provide such proof before having the opportunity to hearing the employee's evidence as to why he/she has alleged that the dismissal was unfair.

This means that the employer is assumed guilty of unfair dismissal until it proves itself innocent; but also has to present its case first. Thus the employer is in a seriously disadvantaged position. At conciliation the employee may be represented only by himself/herself or by a union official. The employer may represent itself or be represented by an official of an employer's organisation.

At arbitration lawyers may be allowed if:

  • The dispute is not a matter of misconduct or incapacity, or
  • The arbitrator allows lawyers due to the legal complexity of the matter or to "uneven playing fields".

Employers are therefore advised to join registered employers' organisations in order to avoid the uncertainty of being allowed representation.

Ivan Israelstam is chief executive of Labour Law Management Consulting. He can be contacted on 011-888-7944 or via e-mail at  

Our appreciation to Ivan and The Star newspaper for permission to publish this article.


Case Law Summaries and Articles


Can employees be dismissed for refusing to accept new terms and conditions of employment?

Can an employer dismiss employees because they refuse to agree to a change to their terms and conditions of employment? An initial answer may be, “yes”.

Read More >>>


Escape route: “Resignation with immediate effect”

The latest case in the ‘disciplining employees who have resigned with immediate effect’ saga has brought about more uncertainty as to whether an employee who resigns with immediate effect shortly before a disciplinary hearing can avoid disciplinary action and subsequent dismissal.

Read More >>>


Freedom of expression or incitement to commit an offence? A constitutional challenge

On 4 July 2019, the North Gauteng High Court handed down judgment in the case of The EFF and other v Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and other (87638/2017 and 45666/2017) in which the EFF and Julius Malema (the applicants) sought to have s18(2)(b) of the Riotous Assemblies Act, No 17 of 1956 (Riotous Act) declared unconstitutional.

Read More >>>


Consolidated, comprehensive or general final written warnings

Regarding dismissal, according to the Code of Good Practice, “the courts have endorsed the concept of corrective or progressive discipline. This approach regards the purpose of discipline as a means for employees to know and understand what standards are required of them.

Read More >>>







Courses and Workshops




Shop Steward Training

28 August 2019

Emperors Palace Convention Centre

Employment Equity Committee Training

29 August 2019 (Fully Booked)

Tsogo Sun: Century City: Cape Town

30 August 2019

Tsogo Sun: Century City: Cape Town

27 September 2019

Emperors Palace: Convention Centre

04 October 2019

Southern Sun: Maharani: Durban

Basic Labour Relations

04 September 2019

Emperors Palace: Convention Centre

Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Course

12 September 2019

Southern Sun: Maharani Towers: Durban

The OHS Act and the Responsibilities of Management

13 September 2019

Southern Sun: Maharani Towers: Durban

19 September 2019

Emperors Palace: Convention Centre

28 November 2019

Protea Hotel By Marriott Tyger Valley: Cape Town

Managing Day to Day Issues/ Problem Employees Full day workshop

20 September 2019

Emperors Palace: Convention Centre

27 September 2019

Tsogo Sun: Century City: Cape Town

AARTO and the Impact on Your Business

03 October 2019

Emperors Palace Convention Centre

Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment Course

18 October 2019

Emperors Palace: Convention Centre

21 November 2019

Tsogo Sun: Century City: Stay Easy: Cape Town

Workshop Incident/Accident Investigation Course

25 October 2019

Emperors Palace: Convention Centre

22 November 2019

Tsogo Sun: Century City: Stay Easy: Cape Town


 Our Clients 


Android App On Google Play

Android App On Google Play